The demands for pig meat (pork) in Nigeria is generally high because pork meat is one of the major sources of protein in Nigeria, there the need to start a pig farm.
One of the major reasons why piggery easy to run and manage, which makes it more profitable is you can also plant your pigs feed, thereby saving feed cost significantly.
The common practice in breeding pigs in Nigeria is a closed system or in a controlled environment where pigs are bred in pens.
Normally it takes between 7 to 12 (seven to twelve) months for pigs to grow to from piglets to maturity. One good thing about piggery is you can start with a very little capital, as low as Two Hundred Thousand Naira (N200,000) and still make a profit.
ADVANTAGES OF PIG FARMING
- High number offspring: Pigs generally give birth to a high number of piglets up to 20 piglets in one litter. Averagely a pig gives birth to between 6 to 10 piglets, and they can farrow twice in a year. Meaning every year you should get an average of about 12 piglets.
- Cheap to run and maintain: Running a piggery business is very cheap to run and maintain as you can easily source for their feeds around by getting waste products from markets, fast foods, factories and other industrial waste.
- It is very profitable: Pig farming is very profitable, A mature pig sells for between 40k to 100k or more depending on the weight (It is now #600-700 per kilo). Imagine producing just 100 pigs yearly. Do your calculation by yourself.
- Feeds can easily be sources: Pig feeds are affordable and can easily be sourced. Pigs can eat anything, even sounds.
- The market is readily available: The market is readily available, selling your pigs would not be an issue, the issue you might have might be meeting demands as pig farmers are not currently meeting the demands of the market at the moment.
PIG FARMING TERMINOLOGIES
Here are terminologies you should get familiar with when going into pig farming:
- Pen: This is where the pigs live, a place where you breed them is called a pen.
- Pig, hog or swine: This is the general name used to address the species
- Piglet: These are young pigs between the ages of 1 day to about 8 weeks. These pigs are still sucking from their mother.
- Weaners: These are pigs between the ages of 8 weeks (2 months) and about 16 weeks (4 months) These are pigs that have just been weaned or separated from their mothers.
- Boar: male pig of breeding age
- Castrated pig: A male pig that the scrotum has been removed
- Growers: A young male or female pig between the ages of 3 months to about 6 months
- Gilt: a young female pig that has not yet been mated, or farrow
- Sow: breeding female pig
- Pork: Pig meat
- Farrow: Process of giving birth to piglets
POPULAR PIG BREEDS IN NIGERIA
In Nigeria the popular pig breeds are; the local breeds (they usually not as massive as the foreign breed, they come in white, black or brown color) foreign breeds include American Yorkshire, Duroc, Landrace, Hampshire, large white, Hampshire, Scarborough, etc.
HOW TO SET UP PIG FARMING
Before you set up a pig farm, you need to understand the business in terms of the technical know-how and basic understanding of the business. To set-up a successful pig farm or piggery business, you need to have an in-depth understanding of the business. Here are the following things you need to know or put in place:
- Knowledge of the business: Before setting up a business you need to understand the business or have a little knowledge of the business in terms of breeds, costs, feeding formulation, medications, best practices, etc. This will enable you to maximize profit and fully prepared for any future challenges.
- Breeding Site: One of the most important factors in piggery is the breeding site or the pig farm. There is one Pigery site at Oke Aro and another is at Gberigbe in Ikorodu. Just ask for one in your state too. But if you are considering massive farms, you could purchase land in a rural setting. You can get land from as low as N100,000 per acre to start your farm.
Call somebody in your state now to confirm.
- Build Standard Pens: Pens are where you will breed your pigs, you, therefore, need to build the pens in such a way that It will allow you to accommodate all your animals and also give room for expansion in the future.
This is one area where you have to pay good attention as a wrong plan may lead to disaster in the future. You need to plan your pen in such a way where it will accommodate all the animals you intend to breed and to prevent overcrowding, also you have to factor in special places for in-pigs or inglits to farrow.
- Buy Good Breeds: One of the most important factors in piggery after a feed is the pig breeds. Some breeds are generally known to grow bigger, faster and larger than their counterparts under the same feeding and environmental conditions. The popular breeds in Nigeria are the local breeds and foreign breeds which includes large white, Duroc, Yorkshire, landrace, Scarborough, etc
- Feeding: In piggery, feeding takes approximately 70% of the total cost of production. The feed components consist of PKC (palm kernel cake), maize, cassava, cassava peel, cassava meal, rice shaft, spent grains, waste, etc.
- Maintain a Standard and healthy Environment: Though pigs are very rugged animals, One of the ways to be safe is to keep a clean and healthy environment for your pigs to breeds, build a standard drainage system to ensure a free flow of animal waste.
- Train or Employ Experienced Workers: Another important factor in piggery is the attendants that work on the farm premises. The need to be trained or experienced in this field.
- Employ the Service of a veterinary Doctor: You can’t run a successful pig business without employing the service of a veterinary doctor.
Please before you venture into piggery, please visit other pig farms, meet with professionals and ask questions.